海釣全攻略 釣魚技巧 釣魚也是要天時地利人和

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海釣全攻略 釣魚技巧你可以不知道 但安全真的很重要 請耐心詳讀

相信很多人都有這個困擾 到底甚麼時機跟時間點才比較有機會釣到魚

其實釣魚也是要天時地利人和,本篇就來介紹一下 海釣的基本技巧跟釣魚時機以及釣魚安全須知!!

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一、海釣的基本技巧:

1、海釣不同於淡水釣的特點:

a、首先是海洋有寒暖流,許多海魚都有隨季節流流動的習性,季節流還會帶來大量的有機物和浮游生物,尤其是寒暖流交匯之處,更是海洋魚類覓食的最佳場所,例如。(後面魚種篇會詳細介紹不同魚種的出沒地點)

b、海洋有潮汐的漲落,海水漲潮會把大量的有機物質和魚帶到岸邊,此時更有利於垂釣;退潮後,則一般不宜垂釣。

c、早晚海面相對平靜,通常稱為打母光以及夜間適宜垂釣,白天海上易起大風浪,甚至會危及垂釣者的安全,較不宜垂釣。

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本圖參考 南一書局

2、潮汐和海風對海釣的影響:

白天海水上漲,叫做「潮」,晚上海水上漲,叫做「汐」,不過一般還是把潮和汐都統稱為潮。因此,海水上升的過程稱為漲潮,漲到最高水位稱為滿潮,海水下降的過程稱為退潮,降到最低水位時稱為乾潮。滿潮和乾潮兩者的水位差,稱為潮差。

a、潮汐對海釣的影響較大,一般漲潮及退潮期間,海水處於運動狀態,也攪動著海魚的運動,四處覓食,所以漲潮和退潮是海釣的最佳時期。特別在漲潮期,魚兒咬鉤頻率可增加數十倍。   

b、海風對海釣的影響,僅次於潮汐,有風比無風好,有風時,風力攪動潮水運動,也增加了海魚覓食的頻率。風力的大小以三四級為好,連續幾天大風之後平息下來,是海釣的好時機,因為海魚在大風中好幾天未進食,海風平靜下來後顯得特別饑餓,進食上釣率倍增提高。

作為風向來說,在風力不大的前提下,從海洋吹向陸地的風(逆風)比從陸地吹向海洋的風(順風)為好,但風力太大,它不僅影響拋鉤,也將大片海草吹向岸邊,在這種情況下順風就較逆風好了。

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3、船釣以及磯釣安全注意事項:

船釣的特點是水深、流急、路途遠、時間長,往往需要渡過不小的海面。並且大海喜怒無常,在磯釣時還會遇到打上岩石的巨浪。所以海釣愛好者都明白“海釣有風險,出海需謹慎”,而選擇船舶是保證海釣安全的第一步。當前海釣活動安全管理制度相對缺乏,部分漁船非法開展海釣服務,違章搭客,救生消防設施配備不足、漁船和船隻沒有相關資格證等問題層出不窮,這些都為事故的發生埋下了隱患。因此,海釣者租船出海垂釣時,必須租用有營運資格的船舶,不妨要求查看船舶和船員的相關證件,儘量多詢問,以便坐上最好的船,找到水準最高的船員領航。

    重視防護和救生設備

    在準備出發去海釣的時候,要攜帶齊全的裝備,漁具要應有盡有。魚鉤、魚線,多帶幾套方為上策,下鉤,掛鉤、折線在所難免。如果估計路遠、時間長,還要帶足飲食和用具,更要重視防護和救生設備。很多海釣安全事故是由於缺乏必要的安全防護設備造成的。

    參加海釣活動時,救生衣是在出現事故時轉危為安的一個重要安全保障,因此,無論天氣如何炎熱也要穿上救生衣,並且正確穿著救生衣扣好保險扣。在選擇救生衣時,不必挑選太高級的,但一定要根據自己的體重選擇適當的。如果漁船只提供救生圈,那麼出海前一定要確認存放位置,萬一出現狀況能在第一時間找到而不會手忙腳亂。救生衣在意外落海時,能使人漂浮在海面上,如果落水時遇到大浪拍擊,還可以起到緩衝的作用。

    在磯釣的時候,一定要穿上磯釣專用釘子鞋(防滑)。救生衣和釘鞋是磯釣必須的裝備。在外礁或者碼頭防波堤磯釣時,礁石和防波堤上因佈滿青苔或受海浪沖洗而變得光滑,普通鞋子無法起到防滑的作用。釘鞋的底部佈滿了釘子,在光滑的岩石或者堤壩上行走可以有效地起到防滑作用,從而避免因滑倒而落水。

    另外,常備防水袋並多準備幾條毛巾是個好習慣。手機專用防水袋很重要,手機平時使用時無需什麼保護措施,但在出海垂釣時務必帶好手機專用防水袋,在雨淋、浪打、落水等情況下,有效地避免手機泡水損壞,以免遇到險情後無法與外界聯繫求援。魚上鉤以後,在掙扎的時候很容易把手紮傷,這時候可以用毛巾裹住魚兒,既可避免魚兒掙扎,手也不會被毒魚紮傷從而造成危險。

    海洋面積廣,水體深,需要使用較長的魚線。為了方便垂釣者配備及調整魚線長短,並且保證自身安全,最好使用繞線輪。目前繞線輪是海竿和海釣必備的工具,運用愈加廣泛。繞線輪可分為電動式繞線輪、密封式繞線輪和旋壓式繞線輪、盤式繞線輪和袖珍式繞線輪等品種。電動式繞線輪採用電機操作,方便而準確,魚上鉤後自動收線拉魚,但體積大,攜帶不方便。旋壓式繞線輪操作亦很簡單,收線速度快,體積適中,是目前廣為使用的。    

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密切關注天氣變化

    海釣不僅要保證自身充沛的體力,還要密切關注天氣變化情況。出發前一定要確認天氣預報,瞭解海面風力、風向和浪高,要有隨時中止出發的決心。海上天氣瞬息萬變,出海後也要時刻關注海面變化。當浪頭呈三角狀、浪花上出現許多白色泡沫,或大海上突然發生巨大的海鳴或者海濤聲時,這表明大海正在發出危險信號,此時應立即轉移到安全地帶,因為可能用不了幾秒鐘,就會有特大的波浪湧來。在與外海相接的海面,有時即使看上去風平浪靜、波瀾不興,也會發生突發大浪,即使站在比較高的地方,也可能在一刹那間被海浪卷走。所以,在海釣時應時刻注意海浪的變化,在裝配漁具、更換釣鉤魚餌時也應儘量避免背對著大海作業。儘早的察覺海浪的變化是保障海釣安全的一個重要環節。

    另外,在海釣過程中要注意防曬防中暑,遇上突發的行雷閃電一定要避開,不要認為沒下雨或下小雨就堅持釣,因為手中的魚杆,特別是碳素杆,等於一根引雷針。一旦遇上風浪、海嘯,要沉著冷靜應對,有計劃、有準備地撤退到安全地帶。

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釣魚中最忌諱的事情

    一年四季,吹不同的風對釣魚也是有影響的。風不能太大,以3至4級風為宜,風大海水混濁,魚看不清魚餌,此時釣魚是徒勞無功。沒風也不行,風能帶動海浪,增加海水的氧份,魚才能活躍索食,否則,海水裡的氧份少,魚也很少。在夜釣時,還要觀察月亮與星星的情況,如果是沒有月亮與星星就不要去釣了,因為當投餌入水時,由於沒有了光的折射作用,在海面泛起一些藍光,會驚嚇到魚。同時,夜釣時儘量不要開燈,就是開燈也不要讓燈光照射到海面上,魚在晚上對光線極其敏感的。有經驗的釣手借著月光,完全可以完成一切裝餌、摘魚等操作的。

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釣場選擇 慎選釣場,提防海浪

    我國海岸線綿延1240多公里,海魚品種多,常見的有100多種。海水魚類比淡水魚類兇猛,通常見餌即咬,因此比淡水釣更易收穫,垂釣也更具刺激性和樂趣,但同時也具有一定的危險性可參考有毒魚種分類。所以在釣魚之前,一定要瞭解如何選擇釣場。

    海釣的釣場有深場和淺場之分,水深50米以上為深場,一般採用船釣。水深50米以內為淺場,船釣、岸釣均可。淺場又可分為海島岩礁漁場和海灘漁場。海島岩礁漁場,即在大海中或海邊礁石上垂釣,也叫磯釣。海底礁石上生長著海藻類植物,海中昆蟲、軟體動物和各種小魚、蝦也喜歡在此生活,因此能誘來不少魚類覓食、繁殖。海邊岩礁處一般水深10米左右,各種海魚大小不等,海魚成群生活,一旦魚群遊來,見食就搶,上鉤率非常高。但在海礁上釣魚風浪大,體力消耗多,危險性比較大,如果沒有一定的經驗,儘量不要獨自進行磯釣。

    海灘漁場是指在大海邊、海灣處的沙灘或斜坡上垂釣。在海灘釣魚較安全,但要密切注意海潮的漲落。每到漲潮時,海魚成群結隊隨潮水湧到岸邊,吞食岸邊的食物,這時正是海釣最理想的時候。在海灘垂釣,一方面要隨時注意海魚搶食,及時提竿、收線、上魚,另一方面應隨時注意海潮的漲落。如果左右上漲的海水從陸磯後邊包抄,並遇上較大的風浪,對垂釣者造成很大威脅,一定要沉著冷靜,撤退到安全地帶,否則有被海浪卷走的危險。  

 
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選擇釣位有技巧

    選擇好了釣場,還需確定具體的釣位。海洋自然環境複雜,如何選擇釣位,才既能保證安全,又能有所收穫呢?考慮釣位應綜合多種因素,首先應儘量避免淺灘,淺灘上日光充足,大多數魚兒都有避光性,一般只有夜間和早晚在淺灘活動。海灣垂釣應選擇滯水區,內海中的滯水區,包括河流入海口、生活碼頭、防波堤等。這些地方水底淤泥或沙石較多,水流緩慢、餌料豐富,一般魚兒較多。 岩礁垂釣應選拔面向海潮衝擊的一面,即通常所說的潮表。潮錶帶來豐富的浮游生物,與岩石撞擊時又會產生豐富的氧分,所以潮表亦是理想的釣點。在海釣過程中對毒物、毒魚類的瞭解也是必須的,要防止毒魚刺傷,釣上來的不認識的東西絕對不要碰。

    避免獨自出海

    出外釣魚時,儘量避免獨自出海,在沒有同伴相互照應的情況下,遇上險情時往往陷入困境,要結伴而行,互相幫助,多注意同伴的情況,以防發生意外時不能及時援救。海浪、旋渦、礁石,包括突變的壞天氣,隨時存在著很大的不可預知。比如突發的大浪、甚至是稍微的腳下打滑,都可能給海釣者帶來傷害。在海釣過程中,要保持清醒的頭腦,沉著冷靜,閉開岩石的撞擊和割傷,萬一掉進水裡,首先儘量向大海深處遊去,以免被浪打入礁石,然後向同伴求救。海浪有礁石的情況,一定要觀察清楚,根據情況同伴是否要為落水者提供進一步的助浮物,比如海釣時帶的冰箱,或者聯繫船家請求救援。

    在海釣時,還要注意遇纏絲千萬不要把心思用在解絲的功夫上,拿起剪刀把腳絲一刀剪斷,保留好主絲與墜子就行了,馬上換新的。如果剪腳絲不解決問題就剪主絲,重裝釣組的時間總比慢慢解開纏住的絲省事。在釣魚時,經常有魚鉤鉤到手指裡去,這時千萬不要自己拔,要找醫院開刀取鉤。

    海洋一般水比較深,深水底層魚承受的壓力很大。一旦魚被釣上海面,迅速減壓,會很快死掉。要想保鮮、保活,必須用放氣針刺入魚腹,輕壓魚肚,使氣體排出體外,魚能適應水錶環境,多活些時間。由於水深、水流較大,漁線很難保持筆直,一旦發現魚訊,提竿的時候動作宜大,力量也要足。深水有大魚,海上什麼樣的兇猛魚類都有,有的魚能將船槳一口咬斷。海上垂釣的時候,一旦釣住特大魚類,它就會像艦艇一樣將鉤餌拉走,繞線器裡的線放完以後,它依然如故拉拽。這時候,要當機立斷,割斷漁線,保住魚竿。如果在小舢板上遇到這種情況,千萬注意不要讓其將船拖翻,以免發生傷亡事故。

 

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China¿s human hair factory tailor-make wigs that are sold across the world It is best-known for its oriental rugs, herbal teas and ancient medicines. But now, a more unusual product is starting to become China's must-have item. Exports of human hair have rocketed in popularity and it is now being sold in countries all over the world. Exports of human hair have boomed in popularity and is mainly produced in Taihe, in the eastern province of Anhui that is home to more than 400 companies In the workplaces, the hair is first disinfected in two huge barrels, before workers use paddles to stir clumps of strands in steaming water. It is dyed in colours from white to black and is then dried in ovens, brushed and sewn into hair extensions Prices for the hair can go for as much as £525, for cuts of 20 inches pre bonded hairVendors in Taihe, in the east of China, display their selection of hair at a street market. The county made £52 million from exports in 2012 - nearly half of its total China is the world's biggest exporter of hair and according to the World Trade Organisation's International Trade Centre, exported nearly 75 per cent of the world's 'bird skin, feathers and human hair' products in 2012 Workers process human hair into a variety of styles, including curly extensions, wigs and Afros which end up on heads in countries across the world The hair is dyed in colours from white to black and is then dried in ovens, brushed and sewn into extensions Taihe, in the eastern province of Anhui, is home to more than 400 companies processing human hair into a variety of styles, including curly extensions, wigs and Afros which end up on heads in the United States, Europe and Africa. It is one of many 'industrial clusters' - areas that specialise on a single product - that have emerged in recent decades as a result of the booming Chinese economy. Fu Quanguo, 64, pioneered the trade in the 1970s.

He said: 'We used to collect the human hair locally, but now it comes from all kinds of countries, like Myanmar (formerly Burma) and Vietnam. 'In the past making hair products was tough, and we did it all by hand. Now we've gone from small to big and are selling internationally.' Taihe, in the eastern province of Anhui, specialises in the sale of hair and is big business for the region Customers have to haggle with street vendors over the price of the hair remy hair extensionsVendors in Taihe have helped make China the world's biggest exporter of hair In the workplaces, the hair is disinfected in two huge barrels, before workers use paddles to stir clumps of strands in steaming water. It is dyed in colours and then dried in ovens and sewn into hair extensions In the workplaces, the hair is first disinfected in two huge barrels, before workers use paddles to stir clumps of strands in steaming water. It is dyed in colours from white to black and is then dried in ovens, brushed and sewn into hair extensions. Prices can go for as much as 5,400 yuan - £525 - for cuts of 20 inches. Mr Quanguo's son, Fu Qianwei, 36, has a company with the English name Anna and export sales of £4.7 million a year, mostly to the United States. He employs more than 200 full-time staff. He said: 'Each country has different demands on length, thickness and quality. 'As Africa's economy grows, the market is growing and moving towards higher quality. 'Because the value of hair is so high, people call it black gold.' Fu Qianwei, who runs the company Anna, said: 'Because the value of hair is so high, people call it black gold' The export of hair is especially common in the east of China and here workers at a factory in Taihe produce the hair for sale across the world The hair is boxed up before it is disinfected, dyed and dried and is then sold across the globe According to the World Trade Organisation's International Trade Centre, China exported nearly 75 per cent of the world's 'bird skin, feathers and human hair' products in 2012 A worker feeds hair through a sewing machine during the production phase before it is sold The export of hair is especially common in the east of China and the hair markers, ramshackle workshops and factories around the cornfields of Taihe generated £52 million of exports in 2012 - nearly half the county's total. According to the World Trade Organisation's International Trade Centre, China exported nearly 75 per cent of the world's 'bird skin, feathers and human hair' products in 2012.

With starring roles in Suicide Squad, Wolf of Wall Street and The Legend of Tarzan, Margot Robbie has Hollywood well and truly under her spell. And now a new generation of up-and-coming Australian soap stars are trying to emulate the success of the ex-Neighbours actress. Olympia Valance, Mavournee Hazel and Lilly Van Der Meer - all of whom are causing a stir on Neighbours, are trying to follow in their role model's footsteps. perruques cheveux naturelsScroll down for video Role model: Neighbours star Olympia Valance (left) is trying to emulate the success of Margot Robbie (right) Lilly, who plays Xanthe Canning on the show, has even been touted as the new Margot thanks, in part, to her upbringing in the same Gold Coast neighbourhood. The 16-year-old has previously told the Courier Mail how she has been spurred on by the blonde beauty's success. 'I love watching all her films, and it's so encouraging to see how well she has done,' she said. Rising star: Lilly Van Der Meer (pictured) has also expressed an interest in moving to LA

Sister act: Olympia (left), whose is blessed with the same incredible looks as her older sister Holly Candy (nee Valance), is also making waves on the popular soap 'I love where I am right now. Neighbours is so amazing and I ­always wanted to be a part of a show like this.' Olympia, whose is blessed with the same incredible looks as her older sister Holly Candy (nee Valance), is also making waves on the popular soap. The brunette beauty has already been scouted by the same Hollywood agents that look after Chris and Liam Hemsworth. She has not ruled out a move to Tinseltown and all eyes will be on the 23-year-old when her contract runs out early next year. perruques cheveuxMaking waves: Olympia has already been scouted by the same Hollywood agents that look after Chris and Liam Hemsworth Popular: With starring roles in Suicide Squad (pictured), Wolf of Wall Street and The Legend of Tarzan, Margot Robbie has Hollywood well and truly under her spell Olympia, who plays Paige Smith on the show, has previously told Sydney Morning Herald how she would 'love' to try something different and star in a movie. 'LA might be down the line,' she said. Mavournee has also spoken about how she strives to match Margot's work ethic on the Neighbours set. She told news.com.au: 'Margot's work ethic (on Neighbours) was impeccable. She always arrived on set knowing her lines. 'Being where Margot has been I'm trying to replicate that.' Talent: Mavournee Hazel has also spoken about how she strives to match Margot's work ethic on the Neighbours set

She's been enjoying a picturesque holiday in Italy with her family. And Beyonce looked stylish as she was spotted in Lipari, Sicily with husband Jay Z and their adorable daughter Blue Ivy on Friday. Rocking a black one-piece swimsuit, the 34-year-old superstar enjoyed the sights and sounds of the beautiful island with her nearest and dearest. Scroll down for video Fun in the sun! Beyonce looked stylish as she was spotted in Lipari, Sicily with husband Jay Z and their adorable daughter Blue Ivy Showing off her sizzling hot body, her strapless monokini accentuated her ample cleavage and featured a patterned string planel across her midriff with pretty gold beading. Adding a splash of colour, she donned a chunky turquoise statement necklace and accessorised with hoop earrings. Covering her face with a large sunhat, she looked every inch the stylish star. lace front wigsSizzling! Rocking a black one-piece swimsuit, the 34-year-old superstar enjoyed the sights and sounds of the beautiful island Effortless glamour: Covering her pretty face with metallic shades, she wore her trademark golden tresses in beach curls Yummy mummy: Showing off her sizzling hot body, her strapless monokini accentuated her ample cleavage and featured a patterned string planel across her midriff with pretty gold beading And covering her pretty face with metallic shades, she wore her trademark golden tresses in beach curls. Adding a cover-up to her ensemble, she rocked a semi-sheer dark blue kaftan. Opting for casual footwear, the Run The World hitmaker wore low black sandals. La Dolce Vita! Adding a splash of colour, she donned a chunky turquoise statement necklace and accessorised with hoop earrings Mini-me: Little Blue Ivy was also in tow, looking cute in a burgundy summer dress Adorable: Wearing her hair in cute bows, the four-year-old tot donned pretty designer sandals with metallic wings Family affair: 46-year-old music mogul Jay looked casual in a white T-shirt and shorts, as they explored the island with a group of friends

Precious cargo: Doting dad Jay and a pal helped Blue Ivy onto a boat I got you babe: Jay then turned his attentions to his stunning wife, making sure she got onto the boat safely Little Blue Ivy was also in tow, looking cute in a burgundy summer dress. Wearing her hair in cute bows, she donned pretty designer sandals with metallic wings. The four-year-old tot held on to dad Jay Z's hand as they boarded a boat. VIP treatment: Bey held out her hand as she negotiated the jump from the shore cosplay wigsLeggy: The music superstar showed off her long legs as she climbed aboard Mini me: Beyonce kept close to her daughter all day, holding her hand in the sunshine Group outing: Beyonce and Jay have been joined by some friends in Italy The 46-year-old music mogul looked casual in a white T-shirt and shorts, as they explored the island with a group of friends. The pop star and her family were enjoying some down time after wrapping up the European leg of her Formation World Tour. Beyoncé's tour heads back to the US next month, as she continues to promote her latest album Lemonade. The need for speed: Beyonce later showed off her action girl side as she hit a jet ski VIP on board! The star got some pointers before whizzing off Giving her a run for her money: Jay also hopped on a jet ski for a ride across the waves