魟魚

魟魚
 

魟魚俗稱魴仔魚,屬魟目,全世界有6屬約50種,臺灣產1屬10種,常見的有黃土魟、古氏土魟等,其體盤呈菱形扁平狀,尾纖細,尾部上方大多有一枚毒棘。魟魚大部分屬於海洋性魚類,有時見於河口,少部分是淡水種。世界各大洋都有牠們的蹤影,主要生長在溫暖的海域中,臺灣各地均產。

魟魚活動力不強,活動深度在5~100公尺間,常把身體隱藏在沙泥中,部分種類體色鮮麗,多以小魚及沙泥地的甲殼類和底棲動物為食。只有少數種類具食用價值,但毒刺前端有倒鉤,極難拔除,因此漁民在捕獲後就把魚尾毒刺部分切斷。

魟魚的毒棘主要由象牙質的軟骨組織所組成,一般成魚的棘長約5~10公分,在毒棘的兩側有小鋸齒狀的突出,棘的外層是外皮鞘,內含有腺上皮細胞而形成毒腺。魟魚毒素的分泌是全分泌型,也就是說當毒棘刺入敵人體內時,外皮鞘會破壞而把毒液釋放到敵人體內。魟魚毒素是分子量超過10萬以上的中性不安定蛋白質,在室溫下放置4~18小時或冷凍乾燥後,毒性幾乎會消失。

被魟魚的毒棘刺傷後,毒素會釋放到人體內而引起一連串的症狀。首先傷口會劇烈疼痛,約1小時後轉變為間歇性的抽痛,且患部會腫大,伴隨有噁心、嘔吐、腹痛、頭暈、痙攣、呼吸困難、血壓下降、麻痺等現象,有些嚴重的如毒棘刺到胸部或腹部則易致死。刺傷後,若傷口未做及時處理,極易受細菌二次感染而導致潰爛壞死。

來源:行政院國家科學委員會

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China¿s human hair factory tailor-make wigs that are sold across the world It is best-known for its oriental rugs, herbal teas and ancient medicines. But now, a more unusual product is starting to become China's must-have item. Exports of human hair have rocketed in popularity and it is now being sold in countries all over the world. Exports of human hair have boomed in popularity and is mainly produced in Taihe, in the eastern province of Anhui that is home to more than 400 companies In the workplaces, the hair is first disinfected in two huge barrels, before workers use paddles to stir clumps of strands in steaming water. It is dyed in colours from white to black and is then dried in ovens, brushed and sewn into hair extensions Prices for the hair can go for as much as £525, for cuts of 20 inches pre bonded hairVendors in Taihe, in the east of China, display their selection of hair at a street market. The county made £52 million from exports in 2012 - nearly half of its total China is the world's biggest exporter of hair and according to the World Trade Organisation's International Trade Centre, exported nearly 75 per cent of the world's 'bird skin, feathers and human hair' products in 2012 Workers process human hair into a variety of styles, including curly extensions, wigs and Afros which end up on heads in countries across the world The hair is dyed in colours from white to black and is then dried in ovens, brushed and sewn into extensions Taihe, in the eastern province of Anhui, is home to more than 400 companies processing human hair into a variety of styles, including curly extensions, wigs and Afros which end up on heads in the United States, Europe and Africa. It is one of many 'industrial clusters' - areas that specialise on a single product - that have emerged in recent decades as a result of the booming Chinese economy. Fu Quanguo, 64, pioneered the trade in the 1970s.

He said: 'We used to collect the human hair locally, but now it comes from all kinds of countries, like Myanmar (formerly Burma) and Vietnam. 'In the past making hair products was tough, and we did it all by hand. Now we've gone from small to big and are selling internationally.' Taihe, in the eastern province of Anhui, specialises in the sale of hair and is big business for the region Customers have to haggle with street vendors over the price of the hair remy hair extensionsVendors in Taihe have helped make China the world's biggest exporter of hair In the workplaces, the hair is disinfected in two huge barrels, before workers use paddles to stir clumps of strands in steaming water. It is dyed in colours and then dried in ovens and sewn into hair extensions In the workplaces, the hair is first disinfected in two huge barrels, before workers use paddles to stir clumps of strands in steaming water. It is dyed in colours from white to black and is then dried in ovens, brushed and sewn into hair extensions. Prices can go for as much as 5,400 yuan - £525 - for cuts of 20 inches. Mr Quanguo's son, Fu Qianwei, 36, has a company with the English name Anna and export sales of £4.7 million a year, mostly to the United States. He employs more than 200 full-time staff. He said: 'Each country has different demands on length, thickness and quality. 'As Africa's economy grows, the market is growing and moving towards higher quality. 'Because the value of hair is so high, people call it black gold.' Fu Qianwei, who runs the company Anna, said: 'Because the value of hair is so high, people call it black gold' The export of hair is especially common in the east of China and here workers at a factory in Taihe produce the hair for sale across the world The hair is boxed up before it is disinfected, dyed and dried and is then sold across the globe According to the World Trade Organisation's International Trade Centre, China exported nearly 75 per cent of the world's 'bird skin, feathers and human hair' products in 2012 A worker feeds hair through a sewing machine during the production phase before it is sold The export of hair is especially common in the east of China and the hair markers, ramshackle workshops and factories around the cornfields of Taihe generated £52 million of exports in 2012 - nearly half the county's total. According to the World Trade Organisation's International Trade Centre, China exported nearly 75 per cent of the world's 'bird skin, feathers and human hair' products in 2012.

With starring roles in Suicide Squad, Wolf of Wall Street and The Legend of Tarzan, Margot Robbie has Hollywood well and truly under her spell. And now a new generation of up-and-coming Australian soap stars are trying to emulate the success of the ex-Neighbours actress. Olympia Valance, Mavournee Hazel and Lilly Van Der Meer - all of whom are causing a stir on Neighbours, are trying to follow in their role model's footsteps. perruques cheveux naturelsScroll down for video Role model: Neighbours star Olympia Valance (left) is trying to emulate the success of Margot Robbie (right) Lilly, who plays Xanthe Canning on the show, has even been touted as the new Margot thanks, in part, to her upbringing in the same Gold Coast neighbourhood. The 16-year-old has previously told the Courier Mail how she has been spurred on by the blonde beauty's success. 'I love watching all her films, and it's so encouraging to see how well she has done,' she said. Rising star: Lilly Van Der Meer (pictured) has also expressed an interest in moving to LA

Sister act: Olympia (left), whose is blessed with the same incredible looks as her older sister Holly Candy (nee Valance), is also making waves on the popular soap 'I love where I am right now. Neighbours is so amazing and I ­always wanted to be a part of a show like this.' Olympia, whose is blessed with the same incredible looks as her older sister Holly Candy (nee Valance), is also making waves on the popular soap. The brunette beauty has already been scouted by the same Hollywood agents that look after Chris and Liam Hemsworth. She has not ruled out a move to Tinseltown and all eyes will be on the 23-year-old when her contract runs out early next year. perruques cheveuxMaking waves: Olympia has already been scouted by the same Hollywood agents that look after Chris and Liam Hemsworth Popular: With starring roles in Suicide Squad (pictured), Wolf of Wall Street and The Legend of Tarzan, Margot Robbie has Hollywood well and truly under her spell Olympia, who plays Paige Smith on the show, has previously told Sydney Morning Herald how she would 'love' to try something different and star in a movie. 'LA might be down the line,' she said. Mavournee has also spoken about how she strives to match Margot's work ethic on the Neighbours set. She told news.com.au: 'Margot's work ethic (on Neighbours) was impeccable. She always arrived on set knowing her lines. 'Being where Margot has been I'm trying to replicate that.' Talent: Mavournee Hazel has also spoken about how she strives to match Margot's work ethic on the Neighbours set

She's been enjoying a picturesque holiday in Italy with her family. And Beyonce looked stylish as she was spotted in Lipari, Sicily with husband Jay Z and their adorable daughter Blue Ivy on Friday. Rocking a black one-piece swimsuit, the 34-year-old superstar enjoyed the sights and sounds of the beautiful island with her nearest and dearest. Scroll down for video Fun in the sun! Beyonce looked stylish as she was spotted in Lipari, Sicily with husband Jay Z and their adorable daughter Blue Ivy Showing off her sizzling hot body, her strapless monokini accentuated her ample cleavage and featured a patterned string planel across her midriff with pretty gold beading. Adding a splash of colour, she donned a chunky turquoise statement necklace and accessorised with hoop earrings. Covering her face with a large sunhat, she looked every inch the stylish star. lace front wigsSizzling! Rocking a black one-piece swimsuit, the 34-year-old superstar enjoyed the sights and sounds of the beautiful island Effortless glamour: Covering her pretty face with metallic shades, she wore her trademark golden tresses in beach curls Yummy mummy: Showing off her sizzling hot body, her strapless monokini accentuated her ample cleavage and featured a patterned string planel across her midriff with pretty gold beading And covering her pretty face with metallic shades, she wore her trademark golden tresses in beach curls. Adding a cover-up to her ensemble, she rocked a semi-sheer dark blue kaftan. Opting for casual footwear, the Run The World hitmaker wore low black sandals. La Dolce Vita! Adding a splash of colour, she donned a chunky turquoise statement necklace and accessorised with hoop earrings Mini-me: Little Blue Ivy was also in tow, looking cute in a burgundy summer dress Adorable: Wearing her hair in cute bows, the four-year-old tot donned pretty designer sandals with metallic wings Family affair: 46-year-old music mogul Jay looked casual in a white T-shirt and shorts, as they explored the island with a group of friends

Precious cargo: Doting dad Jay and a pal helped Blue Ivy onto a boat I got you babe: Jay then turned his attentions to his stunning wife, making sure she got onto the boat safely Little Blue Ivy was also in tow, looking cute in a burgundy summer dress. Wearing her hair in cute bows, she donned pretty designer sandals with metallic wings. The four-year-old tot held on to dad Jay Z's hand as they boarded a boat. VIP treatment: Bey held out her hand as she negotiated the jump from the shore cosplay wigsLeggy: The music superstar showed off her long legs as she climbed aboard Mini me: Beyonce kept close to her daughter all day, holding her hand in the sunshine Group outing: Beyonce and Jay have been joined by some friends in Italy The 46-year-old music mogul looked casual in a white T-shirt and shorts, as they explored the island with a group of friends. The pop star and her family were enjoying some down time after wrapping up the European leg of her Formation World Tour. Beyoncé's tour heads back to the US next month, as she continues to promote her latest album Lemonade. The need for speed: Beyonce later showed off her action girl side as she hit a jet ski VIP on board! The star got some pointers before whizzing off Giving her a run for her money: Jay also hopped on a jet ski for a ride across the waves