<青海湖>真的有龍的存在嗎?神秘湖泊的龍被拍到了

 

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青海湖的神祕傳說 龍被拍到了>> 似真似假 就讓本篇來介紹介紹順便說說青海湖的由來

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人類歷史不分古今中外,都出現「龍」的傳說。最近網路上也出現一封轉寄信,斗大的標題­打著「青海湖的龍出現了」,內容是三張青龍在水中悠游的照片,難道本世紀的龍真的出現­了?

龍,在中國的神話與傳說中,是一種神異動物,具有蛇身、蜥腿、鷹爪、蛇尾、鹿角、魚鱗、口角有須、額下有珠的形象。

關於龍的動物 學真相,根據動物學家楊鐘健以及歷史學家何新在上世紀末發表的的研究成果:龍的原型動物是大型爬行類,主要是鱷魚(水龍)及巨蜥(山龍)。上古三代以前, 中國古陸氣候暖濕,此二類動物在中國大陸多所存在,舊石器新石器遺址中都有鱷魚骨化石的發現。傳說中所謂貪吃的「饕餮」(唸濤鐵四聲)之名,也不 過是凶猛鱷類鼉龍的轉語。

【青海湖由來】

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青藏高原平均高度4800公尺,空氣非常稀薄,加之氣候寒冷、氣壓低,所以素有「世界屋脊」之稱,和地球南、北極形成對比的「世界第三極」。青海湖即位於青藏高原東北隅,素有「高原明珠」之雅號,為一大型的內陸湖泊,自1997年起,筆者有幸參與國科會大型整合計畫「祁連縫合帶火成岩和變質岩的礦物學、岩石學和地球化學之研究」。在國科會與科博館資助下,自1998至2001年間,每年8月份前往青藏高原的北緣,行野外標本採集及地質考察工作,有幸接觸這景觀奇特的青色內海,故針對青海湖之特殊 地質景觀及相關人文背景作一簡單的介紹,好讓讀者對青海湖的形成及演化過程有更進一步的了解。

【歷史人文】

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青海湖於漢朝(距今約2000年)時名為西海,取其位於西方內海之意。但蒙古語稱其為「庫庫諾爾」,藏語稱之為「湊紋波」,兩者都是「青色大海」的意思,所以漢名就叫「青海」。直至1929年青海省成立,才加了一個「湖」字,以別於省名。中國大陸青海省即由此得名。在當地藏民傳說中,古時這裡並無湖,只有一道用刻有咒語的石板封著口的清泉,當地牧人在用過泉水後,需將石板重新蓋好。一日,吐番王松贊干布的兒子用完泉水後,不慎忘了封口,讓泉水噴湧不止,隨即淹沒廣大的草原和無數的牛羊,為救渡眾生逃此劫難,天神蓮花生大師使出法力,搬來位於印度大山的山頭,壓住噴湧不止的泉水,噴出的泉水形成了青海湖,而壓住泉眼的山頭即為今日青海湖中央的海心山。

又說這是一千三百多年前(唐朝)文成公主與 吐番王松贊干布和親,在離開繁華的都城長安 (今陜西省西安市),進入吐番國(今西藏) 途中,行至日月山口,回首長安城,禁不住潸然淚下,淚水匯成這青藍色的海。

現今青海湖旁設有青海湖博物館,主要展示藏族信仰及歷史文物。當地居民以藏族居多,在藏民的原始信仰中,宇宙被分 為3部分,上面是白色的天空,那是天神的世界;中間紅色的大地,是世界萬象;下面藍色水域,住著龍和龍的家族,在銀波閃爍的青海湖底下則有富麗堂皇的宮殿。因此一片湛藍的青海湖在藏民的信仰中,有著非常崇高的地位,生息在青海湖旁的居民,每年8月皆會盛裝參加祭海的傳統習俗。

【地理環境】

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青海湖位在青海省東北隅,即北緯36度32分~37度15分、東經99度36分~100度47分之間,東西長106公里,南北寬63公里,面積4635
平方公里(約40個台灣日月潭面積大小),海拔3200公尺,平均水深20公尺,是中國最大的內陸鹹水湖。湖區年平均氣溫為攝氏-0.7℃,夏季最熱月(7月)平均氣溫亦只有10~15℃,冬季最冷月(1月)平均氣溫則為-10~-15℃,自11月至翌年3月湖面結冰,冰層厚度可達60~80公分。北方緊臨戈壁沙漠,因此氣候較為乾燥,夏季平均降雨250毫米,為全年主要的降雨期,其他季節雨量稀少。由於週遭環境較為乾燥,雨量不多,湖水蒸發量大,約為降水量的3.8倍,故目前湖面每年平均下降7公分,再加上自四週岩層溶出的礦物鹽類持續累積於湖中,除了湖面下降之外,鹽分升高也是未來必須面臨的問題。

【豐富生態】

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  湖中生物以魚類居多,主要物種為鯉科的青海湖裸鯉(俗稱湟魚),是青海、甘肅兩省的魚類重要產地,不過由於氣候寒冷,水溫偏低,湟魚成長非常緩慢,近幾年在人類的大量撈捕下,族群數量有明顯下降的趨勢。湖中有一著名鳥島,是中國內陸候鳥遷徙的重要棲息地,也是大陸鳥類自然保護區之一,每年春夏時節約有數萬多隻斑頭雁、天鵝、棕頭鷗等來此繁殖生息,每年4~7月間,是觀鳥的最佳季節,可見到成千上萬、遮天蔽日的壯觀景象。

  青海湖為青藏高原的重要組成部分,是中國大陸西部乾旱區(蒙古戈壁沙漠、黃土高原)、東部季風區(黃淮平原、東南丘陵)及青藏高原區三大區域的交匯地帶(如圖3),屬於全球氣候變化的敏感地區和生態系統典型脆弱地區。青海湖獨特的地理位置、環境特點以及目前表現出的一系列生態環境問題、氣候變化,對全世界其他地區氣候變化有著重要的「指標」意義。

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China¿s human hair factory tailor-make wigs that are sold across the world It is best-known for its oriental rugs, herbal teas and ancient medicines. But now, a more unusual product is starting to become China's must-have item. Exports of human hair have rocketed in popularity and it is now being sold in countries all over the world. Exports of human hair have boomed in popularity and is mainly produced in Taihe, in the eastern province of Anhui that is home to more than 400 companies In the workplaces, the hair is first disinfected in two huge barrels, before workers use paddles to stir clumps of strands in steaming water. It is dyed in colours from white to black and is then dried in ovens, brushed and sewn into hair extensions Prices for the hair can go for as much as £525, for cuts of 20 inches pre bonded hairVendors in Taihe, in the east of China, display their selection of hair at a street market. The county made £52 million from exports in 2012 - nearly half of its total China is the world's biggest exporter of hair and according to the World Trade Organisation's International Trade Centre, exported nearly 75 per cent of the world's 'bird skin, feathers and human hair' products in 2012 Workers process human hair into a variety of styles, including curly extensions, wigs and Afros which end up on heads in countries across the world The hair is dyed in colours from white to black and is then dried in ovens, brushed and sewn into extensions Taihe, in the eastern province of Anhui, is home to more than 400 companies processing human hair into a variety of styles, including curly extensions, wigs and Afros which end up on heads in the United States, Europe and Africa. It is one of many 'industrial clusters' - areas that specialise on a single product - that have emerged in recent decades as a result of the booming Chinese economy. Fu Quanguo, 64, pioneered the trade in the 1970s.

He said: 'We used to collect the human hair locally, but now it comes from all kinds of countries, like Myanmar (formerly Burma) and Vietnam. 'In the past making hair products was tough, and we did it all by hand. Now we've gone from small to big and are selling internationally.' Taihe, in the eastern province of Anhui, specialises in the sale of hair and is big business for the region Customers have to haggle with street vendors over the price of the hair remy hair extensionsVendors in Taihe have helped make China the world's biggest exporter of hair In the workplaces, the hair is disinfected in two huge barrels, before workers use paddles to stir clumps of strands in steaming water. It is dyed in colours and then dried in ovens and sewn into hair extensions In the workplaces, the hair is first disinfected in two huge barrels, before workers use paddles to stir clumps of strands in steaming water. It is dyed in colours from white to black and is then dried in ovens, brushed and sewn into hair extensions. Prices can go for as much as 5,400 yuan - £525 - for cuts of 20 inches. Mr Quanguo's son, Fu Qianwei, 36, has a company with the English name Anna and export sales of £4.7 million a year, mostly to the United States. He employs more than 200 full-time staff. He said: 'Each country has different demands on length, thickness and quality. 'As Africa's economy grows, the market is growing and moving towards higher quality. 'Because the value of hair is so high, people call it black gold.' Fu Qianwei, who runs the company Anna, said: 'Because the value of hair is so high, people call it black gold' The export of hair is especially common in the east of China and here workers at a factory in Taihe produce the hair for sale across the world The hair is boxed up before it is disinfected, dyed and dried and is then sold across the globe According to the World Trade Organisation's International Trade Centre, China exported nearly 75 per cent of the world's 'bird skin, feathers and human hair' products in 2012 A worker feeds hair through a sewing machine during the production phase before it is sold The export of hair is especially common in the east of China and the hair markers, ramshackle workshops and factories around the cornfields of Taihe generated £52 million of exports in 2012 - nearly half the county's total. According to the World Trade Organisation's International Trade Centre, China exported nearly 75 per cent of the world's 'bird skin, feathers and human hair' products in 2012.

With starring roles in Suicide Squad, Wolf of Wall Street and The Legend of Tarzan, Margot Robbie has Hollywood well and truly under her spell. And now a new generation of up-and-coming Australian soap stars are trying to emulate the success of the ex-Neighbours actress. Olympia Valance, Mavournee Hazel and Lilly Van Der Meer - all of whom are causing a stir on Neighbours, are trying to follow in their role model's footsteps. perruques cheveux naturelsScroll down for video Role model: Neighbours star Olympia Valance (left) is trying to emulate the success of Margot Robbie (right) Lilly, who plays Xanthe Canning on the show, has even been touted as the new Margot thanks, in part, to her upbringing in the same Gold Coast neighbourhood. The 16-year-old has previously told the Courier Mail how she has been spurred on by the blonde beauty's success. 'I love watching all her films, and it's so encouraging to see how well she has done,' she said. Rising star: Lilly Van Der Meer (pictured) has also expressed an interest in moving to LA

Sister act: Olympia (left), whose is blessed with the same incredible looks as her older sister Holly Candy (nee Valance), is also making waves on the popular soap 'I love where I am right now. Neighbours is so amazing and I ­always wanted to be a part of a show like this.' Olympia, whose is blessed with the same incredible looks as her older sister Holly Candy (nee Valance), is also making waves on the popular soap. The brunette beauty has already been scouted by the same Hollywood agents that look after Chris and Liam Hemsworth. She has not ruled out a move to Tinseltown and all eyes will be on the 23-year-old when her contract runs out early next year. perruques cheveuxMaking waves: Olympia has already been scouted by the same Hollywood agents that look after Chris and Liam Hemsworth Popular: With starring roles in Suicide Squad (pictured), Wolf of Wall Street and The Legend of Tarzan, Margot Robbie has Hollywood well and truly under her spell Olympia, who plays Paige Smith on the show, has previously told Sydney Morning Herald how she would 'love' to try something different and star in a movie. 'LA might be down the line,' she said. Mavournee has also spoken about how she strives to match Margot's work ethic on the Neighbours set. She told news.com.au: 'Margot's work ethic (on Neighbours) was impeccable. She always arrived on set knowing her lines. 'Being where Margot has been I'm trying to replicate that.' Talent: Mavournee Hazel has also spoken about how she strives to match Margot's work ethic on the Neighbours set

She's been enjoying a picturesque holiday in Italy with her family. And Beyonce looked stylish as she was spotted in Lipari, Sicily with husband Jay Z and their adorable daughter Blue Ivy on Friday. Rocking a black one-piece swimsuit, the 34-year-old superstar enjoyed the sights and sounds of the beautiful island with her nearest and dearest. Scroll down for video Fun in the sun! Beyonce looked stylish as she was spotted in Lipari, Sicily with husband Jay Z and their adorable daughter Blue Ivy Showing off her sizzling hot body, her strapless monokini accentuated her ample cleavage and featured a patterned string planel across her midriff with pretty gold beading. Adding a splash of colour, she donned a chunky turquoise statement necklace and accessorised with hoop earrings. Covering her face with a large sunhat, she looked every inch the stylish star. lace front wigsSizzling! Rocking a black one-piece swimsuit, the 34-year-old superstar enjoyed the sights and sounds of the beautiful island Effortless glamour: Covering her pretty face with metallic shades, she wore her trademark golden tresses in beach curls Yummy mummy: Showing off her sizzling hot body, her strapless monokini accentuated her ample cleavage and featured a patterned string planel across her midriff with pretty gold beading And covering her pretty face with metallic shades, she wore her trademark golden tresses in beach curls. Adding a cover-up to her ensemble, she rocked a semi-sheer dark blue kaftan. Opting for casual footwear, the Run The World hitmaker wore low black sandals. La Dolce Vita! Adding a splash of colour, she donned a chunky turquoise statement necklace and accessorised with hoop earrings Mini-me: Little Blue Ivy was also in tow, looking cute in a burgundy summer dress Adorable: Wearing her hair in cute bows, the four-year-old tot donned pretty designer sandals with metallic wings Family affair: 46-year-old music mogul Jay looked casual in a white T-shirt and shorts, as they explored the island with a group of friends

Precious cargo: Doting dad Jay and a pal helped Blue Ivy onto a boat I got you babe: Jay then turned his attentions to his stunning wife, making sure she got onto the boat safely Little Blue Ivy was also in tow, looking cute in a burgundy summer dress. Wearing her hair in cute bows, she donned pretty designer sandals with metallic wings. The four-year-old tot held on to dad Jay Z's hand as they boarded a boat. VIP treatment: Bey held out her hand as she negotiated the jump from the shore cosplay wigsLeggy: The music superstar showed off her long legs as she climbed aboard Mini me: Beyonce kept close to her daughter all day, holding her hand in the sunshine Group outing: Beyonce and Jay have been joined by some friends in Italy The 46-year-old music mogul looked casual in a white T-shirt and shorts, as they explored the island with a group of friends. The pop star and her family were enjoying some down time after wrapping up the European leg of her Formation World Tour. Beyoncé's tour heads back to the US next month, as she continues to promote her latest album Lemonade. The need for speed: Beyonce later showed off her action girl side as she hit a jet ski VIP on board! The star got some pointers before whizzing off Giving her a run for her money: Jay also hopped on a jet ski for a ride across the waves